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What is Ketamine?

Ketamine (brand name Ketalar) is a dissociative anesthetic (blocks sensory perception) that has been available by prescription in the U.S. ketamine drugsince the 1970s for human and veterinary uses. Dissociative drugs can lead to distortion of sights, colors, sounds, self, and one’s environment. ketamine clinic, It is available in a clear liquid or off-white powder form for intravenous injection. ketamine depression treatmentOther dissociative drugs include phencyclidine (PCP) and dextromethorphan (DXM)

  • Ketamine can provide pain relief and short-term memory loss (for example, amnesia of a medical procedure).
  • In surgery, it is used an induction and maintenance agent for sedation and to provide general anesthesia.
  • It has also been used for pain control in burn therapy, ketamine side effects, battlefield injuries, and in children who cannot use other anesthetics due to side effects or allergies.
  • This drug is also under research and holding promise as a treatment for severe depression in difficult cases.
  • It is often preferred as an anesthetic due to a lower chance for depressed breathing, as often occurs with opioids.

Pharmacology of Ketamine

Pharmacologically, ketamine is a noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, but at higher doses may also bind to the opioid mu and sigma receptors. ketamine definitionThis drug disrupts the neurotransmitter (brain chemical) glutamate. Glutamate is involved with learning, memory, emotion, pain recognition. ketamine clinic, It can exhibit sympathomimetic activity which can lead to rapid heart rate and elevated blood pressure.

It is related to phencyclidine (PCP), but has less than 10% of the potency of pure PCP.

This agent is a lipid soluble compound, has an initial rapid distribution and large volume of distribution, with a half-life of 10 to 15 minutes. ketamine and depressionketamine for pain, Secondarily, ketamine treatment, the drug distributes into peripheral tissues with a slower elimination half-life of up to 3 hours, undergoes hepatic metabolism and is excreted in the urine

How Quickly Does Ketamine Work?

  • An injection yields a quick response, with effects occurring in 1 to 5 minutes.
  • “Snorting” takes roughly 5 to 15 minutes.
  • Oral consumption requires between 5 and 30 minutes.

The effects of abuse typically last 1 to 2 hours, but the user’s judgment, senses, and coordination may be affected for up to 24 hours or longer. ketamine high, ketamine treatment, Sensations the user may seek include floating, stimulation and visual effects.

High doses may dangerously reduce breathing, lead to muscle spasms or weakness, ketamine clinic, dizziness, balance difficulty, impaired vision, slurred speech, nausea and vomiting, ketamine treatment, and severe confusion.

Binge use, where the user indulges in the drug in excess amounts in a short period of time has been reported, as well.

INDICATIONS of Ketamine

Ketamine hydrochloride injection is indicated as the sole anesthetic agent for diagnostic and surgical procedures that do not require skeletal muscle relaxation. Ketamine injectionKetamine hydrochloride is best suited for short procedures but it can be used, with additional doses, for longer procedures.

Ketamine hydrochloride injection is indicated for the induction of anesthesia prior to the administration of other general anesthetic agents.

Ketamine hydrochloride injection is indicated to supplement low-potency agents, such as nitrous oxide.

Specific areas of application are described in the CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY section.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION of Ketamine

Note: ketamine high, Barbiturates and ketamine hydrochloride, being chemically incompatible because of precipitate formation, should not be injected from the same syringe.

If the ketamine hydrochloride dose is augmented with diazepam, the two drugs must be given separately. Do not mix ketamine hydrochloride and diazepam in syringe or infusion flask. ketamine side effectsFor additional information on the use of diazepam, refer to the WARNINGS and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Sections of the diazepam insert.

Preoperative Preparations

  1. While vomiting has been reported following ketamine hydrochloride administration, some airway protection may be afforded because of active laryngeal-pharyngeal reflexes. ketamine injectionHowever, since aspiration may occur with ketamine hydrochloride and since protective reflexes may also be diminished by supplementary anesthetics and muscle relaxants, the possibility of aspiration must be considered. ketamine therapyKetamine hydrochloride is recommended for use in the patient whose stomach is not empty when, in the judgment of the practitioner, the benefits of the drug outweigh the possible risks.
  2. Atropine, scopolamine, or another drying agent should be given at an appropriate interval prior to induction.

Onset And Duration

Because of rapid induction following the initial intravenous injection, the patient should be in a supported position during administration.

The onset of action of ketamine hydrochloride is rapid; ketamine and depressionketamine effects, an intravenous dose of 2 mg/kg (1 mg/lb) of body weight usually produces surgical anesthesia within 30 seconds after injection, ketamine clinic, with the anesthetic effect usually lasting five to ten minutes. ketamine definitionketamine effects, If a longer effect is desired, additional increments can be administered intravenously or intramuscularly to maintain anesthesia without producing significant cumulative effects.

Intramuscular doses, ketamine effects, in a range of 9 to 13 mg/kg (4 to 6 mg/lb) usually produce surgical anesthesia within 3 to 4 minutes following injection, ketamine high, ketamine clinic, with the anesthetic effect usually lasting 12 to 25 minutes.

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Dosage

As with other general anesthetic agents, the individual response to ketamine hydrochloride is somewhat varied depending on the dose, route of administration, and age of the patient, so that dosage recommendation cannot be absolutely fixed. The drug should be titrated against the patient’s requirements.

Induction

Intravenous Route

The initial dose of ketamine hydrochloride administered intravenously may range from 1 mg/kg to 4.5 mg/kg (0.5 to 2 mg/lb). ketamine treatment for depressionThe average amount required to produce five to ten minutes of surgical anesthesia has been 2 mg/kg (1 mg/lb). Buy Ketamine Injection Online.

Alternatively, in adult patients, an induction dose of 1 mg to 2 mg/kg intravenous ketamine at a rate of 0.5 mg/kg/min may be used for induction of anesthesia. ketamine treatmentIn addition, diazepam in 2 mg to 5 mg doses, administered in a separate syringe over 60 seconds, may be used. In most cases, 15 mg of intravenous diazepam or less will suffice. ketamine drug testThe incidence of psychological manifestations during emergence, ketamine pills, particularly dream-like observations and emergence delirium, ketamine for Pain, may be reduced by this induction dosage program.

Note: The 100 mg/mL concentration of ketamine hydrochloride should not be injected intravenously without proper dilution. ketamine for Pain, It is recommended the drug be diluted with an equal volume of either Sterile Water for injection, USP, Normal Saline, or 5% Dextrose in Water. ketamine pills, Buy Ketamine Injection Online.

Side Effects of Ketamine

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The drug does, of course, have side effects, and these can be quite profound. ketamine dosageShort-term side effects include bad hallucinations. ketamine drugAs with all psychotropic drugs, the pleasantness of the hallucination depends on the user’s state of mind, and if the user is seeking to escape unhappiness, the hallucinations are likely to be unpleasant.

Naturally, the side effects include:

  • Disorientation and general confusion due to the drug’s anesthetic nature.
  • Drowsiness.
  • Increased heart rate.
  • Elevated blood pressure.
  • ketamine drug test.

Large doses of ketamine can result in what some describe as the “K-hole,” ketamine therapy, which can include intense and unpleasant visual and auditory hallucinations coupled with marked derealization and a frightening detachment from reality.

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Perhaps more acutely problematic, ketamine users can also become quite nauseated. ketamine effectsIf this progresses to vomiting, ketamine therapy, it can be very dangerous, as those in the midst of state of dissociated confusion frequently end up supine—presenting a serious choking hazard. ketamine for anxietyIf you do see someone on ketamine, take a moment to roll them on their side or into the
recovery position if possible to prevent this from happening. ketamine treatment for depressionPromptly call 911 to get emergency medical assistance. Ketamine for sale online.

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The only known source of ketamine is via diversion of prescription products. There have been reports of veterinarian offices being robbed of their ketamine stock. Also, according to the DEA, a major U.S. source of illicit ketamine arrives across the border from Mexico.

Widespread ketamine abuse began in the late 1970s as subcultures (e.g., mind explorers, new agers, spiritualists) experimented with the drug. Ketamine may be injected intravenously or intramuscularly, used intranasally (“snorted”), consumed orally, or added to marijuana and smoked. In social situations, illicit ketamine is most frequently used orally or intranasally.

Doses of 1 to 2 milligram per kilogram of body weight produce intense hallucinogenic and dissociative effects for roughly one hour. Sensations may include floating, stimulation and visual effects. Larger doses may result in the “k-hole”, where users are near full sedation and are said to mimic an “out-of-body” or “near-death” experience. High doses may dangerously reduce breathing, lead to muscles spasms or weakness, dizziness, balance difficulty, impaired vision, slurred speech, nausea and vomiting, and severe confusion.Buy Ketamine HCL Liquid Online | buy ketamine online usa.

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